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  • Adjuvant

    Treatment given after the initial treatment.

  • Blood Brain Barrier

    A group of tightly woven blood vessels surrounding the brain that acts as a defense mechanism by not allowing harmful substances to cross into the brain

  • Central Nervous System tumors (CNS)

    An abnormal growth of tissue in the brain and spinal cord that form in the tissue of the brain or spinal cord.

  • Compassionate Use

    Treatment that may be available for an additional group of patients to receive a drug or treatment who do not qualify for an open clinical trial.

  • Concurrent Therapy

    More than one form of therapy given at the same time.

  • CT (Computerized Tomography) Scan

    This is a non-invasive medical imaging technique used in radiology to obtain detailed images of the body.

  • Genetic Testing

    Test that determines changes in your DNA such as mutations or other variants.

  • Hydrocephalus

    The buildup of fluid within the ventricles of the brain that causes increased pressure.

  • Leptomeningeal

    When cancer cells spread to your cerebral spinal fluid or meninges.

  • Liquid Biopsy

    It is a form of genetic testing obtained from blood or spinal fluid. Liquid biopsies do not replace a tumor biopsy.

  • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Image)

    Medical imaging technique used in radiology that uses magnetic and radio waves to make an image of your body’s tissues and/or organs.

  • Multi-agent

    Combines two or more chemotherapy medications given at the same time.

  • Mutation

    A change in one or more genes.

  • Necrosis

    Cell injury that results in the premature death of the cells in an organ or tissue due to disease, injury, or failure of the blood supply.

  • Neo-adjuvant

    Administered medication or treatment used as the first step to shrink a tumor before the main treatment.

  • Pons

    Part of your brainstem that controls critical functions such as breathing, heartbeat, sensation, motor function and more.

  • Progressive Disease

    A worsening, growth, or spread of the disease and can happen any time after initial diagnosis or treatment.

  • Pseudoprogression

    Is the appearance of a new or enlarged area of tumor growth due to radiation effect. However, this may not be true tumor growth and can decrease or stabilize without a change in therapy.

  • Standard of Care (SOC)

    Standard of care is a medical treatment guideline that specifies appropriate treatment based on scientific evidence in any given treatment or condition.

  • Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt (VP Shunt)

    A medical device that relieves pressure on the brain by removing excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the brain’s ventricles.

  • Ventriculostomy

    A neurosurgical procedure that creates an opening within a ventricle in your brain to drain cerebrospinal fluid, especially in hydrocephalus.