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Most patients have traditionally received chemotherapy either orally or intravenously. When these methods are used, the blood-brain barrier poses a significant obstacle to treatment. The blood-brain barrier protects the brain by preventing toxins and other molecules in the bloodstream from entering brain cells. 

Clinical trials are also aimed at finding new methods for administering medications to DIPG/DMG patients. Newer delivery methods, like convection-enhanced delivery (CED), Ommaya catheter delivery, and focused ultrasound, are being developed to disrupt the blood-brain barrier to allow more chemotherapy agents to pass. 

Studies are currently being conducted to investigate these new methods that deliver medication directly into the tumor: